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Pain Associated with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and cannabis

For patients with Multiple Sclerosis suffering from central pain {call-out, text:Pain caused by damage or malfunction of the central nervous system} or painful spasms, cannabis extracts have been shown to be effective for reduction of central pain and spasms. As summarized in a review, researchers stated that a cannabis extract containing THC:CBD in a 1:1 ratio, is probably effective for treating MS related pain or painful spasms.1 The same review concluded that smoked cannabis was of unclear efficacy for reducing pain.1 Researcher Langford and colleagues concluded that more research is needed, as their study had mixed results.2 Read more in the chapter Multiple Sclerosis (MS). References:
  1. Koppel, B. S.; Brust, J. C. M.; Fife, T.; Bronstein, J.; Youssof, S.; Gronseth, G.; Gloss, D. (2014). Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 82(17), 1556--1563.
  2. Langford, R. M.; Mares, J.; Novotna, A.; Vachova, M.; Novakova, I.; Notcutt, W.; Ratcliffe, S. (2013). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 260(4), 984--997.